General Information about the Slave Dynasty and the Slave Dynasty MCQs

Slave Dynasty is known as the founder of the Delhi Sultanate. Their first ruler Qutbuddin Aibak annexed Delhi, Bengal, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Bihar by 1202. When Muhammad Ghuri assassinated in 1206 A.D., Qutbuddin Aibak announced himself as the Sultan of Delhi. Thus Delhi Sultanate began in the Subcontinent India which lasted for more than 320 years. During this period following five different dynasties or legacies ruled over the Delhi Sultanate.

  • The Slave Dynasty
  • The Khilji Dynasty
  • The Tughlaq Dynasty
  • The Sayyid Dynasty
  • The Lodhi Dynasty

a. Slave Dynasty ( 1206 – 1290 A.D)

Slave Dynasty has the privilege to be the first which ruled over the Delhi Sultanate. They ruled over the Delhi for almost 84 years. Qutbuddin Aibak was the founder and the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Slave dynasty assumed the power of the Delhi Sultanate in 1206 which lasted till 1290. During these 84 years, the following ten kings of the Slave Dynasty ruled over the Delhi.

List of Slave Dynasty Rulers (Sultans)

S.NoName of the SultanRuled DuringTotal Rule (in Years)
1Qutbuddin Aibak1206 – 12104 years
2Aram Shah1210 – 12111 year
3Shamsuddin Iltutmish1211 – 123625 years
4Ruknuddin Feroze1236half year
5Sultana Razia1236 – 12404 years
6Muizddin Behram Shah1240 – 12422 years
7Alauddin Masud Shah1242 – 12463 years
8Nasiruddin Mahmud1246 – 126620 years
9Ghiyasuddin Balban1266 – 128619 years
10Muizuddin Kiqubad1287 – 12903 years

1. Qutbuddin Aibak

Qutbuddin Aibak, an able commander of Muhammad Ghuri, was the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty. When Qutbuddin Aibak defeated Prithviraj in the 2nd Battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D, Muhammad selected as the Viceroy of Indian Territories.  From 1192 to 1202 he successfully conquered the states of the Meerut, Bihar, Kanauj, Bengal, Gwalior, and Delhi. In 1206 A.D, Qutbuddin Aibak declared himself as the Sultan of Delhi. He ruled over Delhi continued till 1210 A.D when he died while playing Polo.

Qutbuddin Aibak was a great administrator and builder. During his rule, the following mosques and minars built in Delhi.

 

  • Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Delhi
  • Qutub Minar, Delhi

Qutbuddin Aibak was also known as the patron of literature. The following famous historical works were compiled under his patronage. 

 

  • Taj-ul-Massir
  • Tarikh-i-Mubarik Shahi

2. Aram Shah

Aram Shah was the second ruler of the Slave Dynasty. He was known as a weak and incompetent king in the history of the Slave rule. He ruled over the Delhi Sultanate for only eight months and his rule came to an end in 1211 A.D when Shamsuddin Iltutmish defeated him.

 

3. Shamsuddin Iltutmish 

Shamsuddin Iltutmish was the 3rd ruler of the Slave dynasty. His rule was begun in 1211 A.D. During the early years of his rule, he faced many challenges but he successfully overcame all of these. Shamsuddin Iltutmish ruled over the Delhi for almost 25 years and he was the longest-serving king of the Slave legacy. During his rule states of Banian and Ujjain were successfully annexed in the Delhi Sultanate.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish rule ended in 1236 A.D on his death.

 

4. Ruknuddin Firuz

When Shamsuddin Iltutmish died in 1236 A.D, he named his daughter Sultana Razia as the new ruler for the Delhi because his sons were incompetent. Bur nobles of his cabinet defied his orders and put Ruknuddin Firuz on the throne of Delhi Sultanate. In that way, he became the fourth ruler of the Slave Dynasty. Ruknuddin Firuz, like his father’s prediction, proved a weak and incompetent king. During his reign all the important matters of the state were taken by his mother Shah Turkan. His incompetant rule ended in 1236 A.D when the nobles of Delhi killed him and his mother.

 

5. Sultana Razia

After killing Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkan the noble of Delhi sultanate named his sister Sultana Razia as the new ruler of the Delhi. Razia was a competent ruler, administrator, and general. Despite being a lady, she personally participated in many wars and battles against enemies of Delhi Sultanate. Because of these military expeditions, she became a successful ruler. She died in a battle with Muizuddin Bahram Shah on 13th October 1240.

 

6. Muizuddin Bahram Shah

The third son of Shamsuddin Iltutmish, Bahram Shah, became the sixth ruler of the Slave dynasty in 1240. He was also, like his brother Ruknuddin, an incompetent king. Because of the lack of intelligence and administrative skills, Turk Amirs of Delhi exploited him and made him as their puppet. During his rule, Mongols attacked Lahore and killed his Governor in Ikhtiyar-ud-Din. After this incident, the noble of the slave dynasty killed Bahram Shah in 1242 A.D.

 

7. Alauddin Masud 

Alauddin was the son of Ruknuddin. He became the seventh king of the Delhi after the death of Bahram Shah in 1242. Like the majority of the Slave Dynasty rulers, he was also an incompetent sultan. He never asserted his authority on the Delhi Sultanate and always remained a puppet in the hands of the Forty nobles. During his reign Mongols captured Multan. Due to his incompetence, the nobles replaced him with the Nasiruddin Mahmud in June 1246 A.D.

 

8. Nasiruddin Mahmud

Nasiruddin Mahmud became the eighth ruler of Delhi Sultanate in 1246. He was very close to the Turkish nobles. Therefore, they had great influence over the Delhi sultanate during his reign. He was famous for his simplicity and religious thoughts in Delhi. Due to his good administrative skills, he ruled over Delhi continuously for 20 years. His rule ended in 1266 A.D.

 

9. Ghiyasuddin Balban

Ghiyasuddin Balban became the ninth king of the slave dynasty by replacing Nasiruddin Mahmud in 1266 A.D. After Qutbuddin Aibak, he was considered the most disciplined and able king of the slave dynasty. Originally, he was a Slave purchased by Shamsuddin Iltutmish. As a result of his great courage and wisdom, he elevated to the position of the King. Throughout the slave dynasty, he held important positions and proved himself as an able administrator and general.

When he became the king of Delhi he took immediate steps to bring prosperity peace and order in the state. During his reign, he abolished the institute of 40 nobles who were enjoying the status of kingmakers throughout the slave dynasty.

In 1286, his 20 years rule over the Delhi ended with his death.

 

10. Muizuddin Kaiqubad

After the death of Balban, Kaiqubad became the last ruler of the Slave dynasty. He assumed the power of Delhi Sultanate in 1287 A.D. He was not proved to be an able king. In 1290, the nobles, therefore, killed him and appointed Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji as the new Sultan of Delhi.

Thus, the rule of Delhi Sultanate passed on to the Khilji’s on 13th June 1290 A.D.

Questions and Answers about Slave Dynasty

1. Who was the last ruler of the Slave dynasty?

OR

Who was the last sultan of the Slave dynasty?

OR

Who was the last Emperor of the Slave Dynasty?

Muizuddin Kaiqubad was the last ruler or emperor (sultan) of the slave dynasty. He became the king of the Delhi after the death of Ghiyasuddin Balban in 1287A.D. In 1290, His rule was ended with his death. After him, the Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji became the new king of Delhi Sultanate and he founded the Khilji dynasty.

2. Who was the founder of the Slave Dynasty?

Qutbuddin Aibak was the first ruler (sultan) of Delhi Sultanate. Therefore, he is also called the founder of the Delhi Sultanate. He established the rule of the Slave Dynasty over the Delhi Sultanate after the death of Muhammad Ghuri in 1206 A.D.

3. Why the slave dynasty is called so?

The slave dynasty is called so because the founder of the Slave dynasty, Qutbuddin Aibak, was the slave of Afghan king, Muhammad Ghori. Besides Qutbuddin Aibak, two other kings (sultans) of the slave Dynasty were also salves viz. Shamsuddin Iltutmish and Ghiyasuddin Balban.
It is because of these Slave kings the dynasty is called the Slave Dynasty.

Slave Dynasty Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs):

MCQs on the Slave Dynasty

01. Name the founder of the Slave dynasty:

(a) Muhammad Ghori

(b) Qutbuddin Aibak

(c) Shamsuddin Iltutmish

(d) Ghiyasuddin Balban

View Answer

(b) Qutbuddin Aibak

02. In which year, the Slave dynasty rule was established over Delhi? 

(a) 1202 A.D.

(b) 1204 A.D.

(c) 1206 A.D.

(d) 1208 A.D.

View Answer

(c) 1206 A.D.

03. For how many years the Slave dynasty ruled over the Delhi Sultanate?

(a) 84 years

(b) 94 years

(c) 104 years

(d) 114 years

View Answer

(a) 84 years

04. Qutbuddin Aibak was the slave of__________________.

(a) Muhammad Ghori

(b) Muhammad bin Qasim

 (c) Salahuddin Ayoubi

(d) Mahmood Ghaznavi

View Answer

(a) Muhammad Ghori

05. Which of the following rulers were slaves (Ghulams)?

(a) Qutbuddin Aibak

(b) Shamsuddin Iltutmish

(c) Ghiyasuddin Balban

(d) All of the Above

View Answer

(d) All of the Above

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